Where is BANGLADESH located on the map?
Bangladesh, located in the north of the Bay of Bengal, almost isolated in India with a small border with Burma, stretches 440 km from east to west and 760 km from north-west to south-east. Its area of 147,570 km2 is similar to that of Greece.
With more than 1251 inhabitants / km2 in 2016, Bangladesh is one of the densest countries in the world. Geographically, most of Bangladesh is occupied by the Ganges delta with a total area of 105 000 km2. It is a fertile plain but prone to cyclones and monsoon floods.
Bangladesh is located in the flat and low delta formed by the confluence of the Ganges and Brahmaputra. The latter is called Jamuna as soon as he enters Bangladeshi territory, and the first becomes Padma as soon as he meets the Jamuna shortly before Dhaka. The Meghna, meanwhile, joins the Padma downstream of the country’s capital. The alluvial deposits deposited by these rivers create some of the most fertile plains in the world. Bangladesh has 58 watercourses on both sides of its international borders, which causes water-related political problems that are particularly difficult to resolve; it also shares riparian areas with India.
Most of Bangladesh is less than 12 meters above sea level and about 10% of the territory is below sea level. 80% of the rainfall falls during the five months of the monsoon (June to October), while only 20% of the land is protected from floods and equipped with drainage and irrigation. Only four areas are outside the delta: the Sylhet Hills, the Madhupur Highlands, the hilly Chittagong Hill Tracts and the Barind area.
It is estimated that about 50% of the country’s area would be flooded if sea level rises by one meter. The highest point in the country – 1,052 meters – is in the Mowdok Range, in the Chittagong Hill Tracts in the south-east of the country. Most of the coastline is marshy jungle, the Sundarbans, the largest mangrove forest in the world, home to many diverse flora and fauna, including the Bengal tiger. In 1997 this region is declared in danger. Cox’s Bazar, south of the city of Chittagong in the extreme southeast of the country, has an unbroken beach of 120 km long, the longest in the world.
Located on both sides of the Tropic of Cancer, Bangladesh has a tropical climate with a mild winter from October to March, a hot and humid summer from March to June, and monsoons from June to October. Natural disasters, such as floods, tropical cyclones, tornadoes, and tidal waves affect the country almost every year. The flood phenomenon is accentuated by the deforestation of the slopes of the Himalayas, by the funnel shape of the Bay of Bengal, by the plain relief of the country, by the hydrography of the country (more than 90% of the country is occupied delta) and global warming. In addition, there are the effects of deforestation, soil degradation and erosion.
In 1970, the Bhola cyclone killed 500,000 people.
In May 1985, on the only muddy island of Urir Char, four thousand of the five thousand inhabitants were killed by a violent tidal wave.
In 1991, a cyclone killed more than 135,000 people.
In 1998, Bangladesh experienced severe flooding. One thousand people died and 30 million became homeless, 130,000 livestock died, 50 km2 of land was destroyed and 11,000 km of roads were severely damaged or completely destroyed. 66% of the country was underwater. The flood was particularly devastating that year because of particularly intense monsoons and a particularly abundant thaw in the Himalayas.
On 15 November 2007, Cyclone Sidr killed 3,300 people and 1.5 billion dollars in damage.
Due to global warming, Bangladesh could lose 20% of its territory as a result of the rising waters. By 2050, “climate refugees” could be 50 million in the country.