Where is INDIA located on the map?
India is a South Asian country member of the Commonwealth. In Hindi the country is called Bhārat. India is bordered on the west by Pakistan and the Arabian Sea, on the north by China (Tibet Autonomous Region, under Chinese control), Nepal and Bhutan, on the east by Burma, Bay of Bengal and Bangladesh, south by the Palk Strait and the Gulf of Mannar, which separate it from Sri Lanka, in the Indian Ocean.
The Indian Federation is made up of 28 states (Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, West Bengal, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Goa, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra , Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Orissa, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, Uttaranchal) and 7 Union Territories (Andaman-and-Nicobar Islands, Chandigarh, Dadra-and- Nagra-Haveli, Daman-and-Diu, Delhi, Laquedives) administered directly by the central government.
The most populated city of India is Bombay. Next come Calcutta and Delhi, which includes in its agglomeration the capital, New Delhi, Madras, Hyderabad, Bangalore, Ahmedabad, Pune, Kanpur, Nagpur, Lucknow, Jaipur.
Where is the country of INDIA situated?
India has an area of 3,165,596 km², ranking it seventh in the world. The Indian peninsula alone forms a sub-continent, distinct from Asia, from which it was separated until the tertiary era. Most of India consists of medium mountains, plateaus or plains. The country can be divided into four major geographical areas: the Himalayas, the alluvial plains of the north, the Dekkan and the eastern and western Ghats.
The Himalayas is the highest mountain range in the world. Born from the collision between the Tibetan plate and the Indian plate, it is formed of crystalline rocks and sediments. Its highest point in Indian territory is Kangchenjunga (8,598 m), the third highest peak in the world after Everest and K2. The Himalayas range from 160 to 320 km stretching over 2,400 km between India and Tibet, from Jammu and Kashmir in the west to Assam East. To the west, the Himalayas extend through the Karakorum range in Kashmir and then through the Hindu Kush range in Afghanistan.
At the foot of the Himalayas lies a vast plain, from west to east (from Pakistan to Bangladesh). Three great rivers, which originate in Tibet or in its borders, cross this region: the Indus (2,897 km), the Ganges (2,510 km) and, in the extreme east, the Brahmaputra (2,897 km) . They are fed by the monsoon and melting Himalayan snow. East of the peninsula, two rivers lead to deltas that progress on the sea: the Ganges and the Brahmaputra, whose cumulative watersheds total 3 million km2, and which water West Bengal, the plain of the Assam and Bangladesh.
Assam has extremely contrasting types of soils: poor, leached soils on upland surfaces in the western part of the Ganges plain and in the foothills of Punjab; Floodable soils more favorable to agriculture in the lower regions. These soils, formed by the alluvium deposited by the great rivers, make the plain of Assam the most fertile and most populated region of the country. Rice growing is highly developed, as is the cultivation of wheat and sugar cane, more specifically in the northern part of this region (Uttar Pradesh and Punjab).
South of the plains is the vast triangular plateau of Dekkan, which occupies most of the Indian peninsula with high plateaus on the side of the Arabian Sea and lower plateaus on the side of the Bay of Bengal. The structure of the region is that of a Precambrian shield, made of rocks of very different natures. The granite or gneiss plateaus (Mysore plateau, in the extreme south, Bastar plateau or Chota Nagpur plateau in the east) contrast with the basaltic plateaux, which are terraced. Black soils (or regur), formed by the decomposition of basalt, have a high water retention capacity, which has particularly favored the cultivation of cotton.
The Dekkan is bordered by two medium mountain ranges: the western Ghats (915 m), which run from north to south, the Arabian Sea and the Malabar coast; Eastern Ghats (460 m), which border the Coromandel coast on the Bay of Bengal.
India is characterized by a tropical monsoon climate. Despite the presence of some temperate zones, the alternation between a dry season and a rainy season conditions the life and activity of the Indians.
During the rainy season, from June to October, the monsoon brings moist air masses from the Arabian Sea and the Indian Ocean. The south and west of the country are the first affected in June. The whole Indian territory enters the rainy season before mid-July. Precipitation can be considerable (at Tcherrapunji, they reach 10 920 mm per year). The offseason is marked by a gradual return of drought.
From December, the monsoon blows from the inland to the sea. Until March, the relatively cool dry season is marked by heavy thunderstorms and snowfall in the Himalayas. Daytime temperatures are generally above 15 ° C in the North, 20 ° C or 25 ° C in the South. On the other hand, the nights are cool: in the plain of Gange, they can go down to 5 ° C, and it sometimes freezes in Punjab.
After the dry season begins the hottest period of the year, between mid-March and the beginning of June. Temperatures often rise above 40 ° C and in some areas of central India may exceed 50 ° C.
These general trends, however, do not reflect the typical climatic variety of India. To the west, in the Ghats region and on the coast along them, the climate is humid, with particularly heavy rainfall on the reliefs. The rainy season is quite long in the region of Cochin or Mangalore, shorter in Bombay or Surat. The northwest of the country – the Punjab Plain and the plains of Rajasthan – is generally drier. Central India has a long, hot and dry season, with very low rainfall in the valleys – Godavari and Krishna, among others. In this zone of the center of the country, the cold season is almost non-existent. It is probably in the north-east of the country that the cycle of the seasons is most clearly marked. As in the west, the rainy season lasts a relatively long time, from the end of May until the beginning of October. In the southeast, the highest rainfall is recorded in November or December, while the rest of the country enters the dry season.
The amount of rainfall varies greatly depending on the year; a year of drought can indeed follow a period of tropical storm. Too much rain also favors the proliferation of mosquitoes and the development of malaria.