San Marino is a European micro-state enclaved inside from Italy. It is the third smallest state in Europe after the Vatican and Monaco, and the fifth largest in the world after the same two states as well as Nauru and Tuvalu. It is also the oldest republic in the world with a constitutional system dating back to the sixteenth century. It is considered a micro-state.
Enclosed in Italy between Emilia-Romagna and the Marches, in February 2015 the country had 32,793 inhabitants, including 5,042 foreigners. There are 12,973 San Marino residents abroad. The Republic is an integral part of the historic Montefeltro region.
Where is San Marino located? San Marino is a country located in Southern Europe. It is landlocked in the central part of Italy throughout its 39 km of borders near the Apennines. With 60.5 km2, it is the third smallest independent state in Europe by area, after the Vatican and Monaco.
The climate is Mediterranean with cool to mild winters and hot, sunny summers. Surrounded by mountains and with only 17% of arable land, San Marino is known for stone mining. Several rivers have their source, such as Ausa, Cando and Fiumicello, others just cross the country: Marano and San Marino.
The territory of San Marino is divided into nine castelli taking over the old boundaries of seigneuries. Each castello has a council elected by the inhabitants, the Giunta, whose presidency is ensured by a “captain” (Capitano) elected every five years.
San Marino has no natural resources, so its territory is mainly oriented towards agriculture and forestry, two areas, however, declining due to population growth. In particular, cereals, vines, olives and fruits are grown. Livestock is concentrated mainly on cattle and pigs.
San Marino lived mainly from agriculture, livestock and the exploitation of some stone quarries until the 1960s. Since then, the activities of the small country have diversified with the rise of crafts, commerce and even industry, all these areas having been favored by the explosion of tourism. Local products include ceramic items, furniture, confectionery, liquors, paint and varnish, and silk textile products.
San Marino mainly exports wine and wool, handicrafts and stamps. The sale of Saint-Marinais stamps to philatelic enthusiasts around the world ensures 10% of the national GDP. The other major source of profits, tourism, directly or indirectly represents more than 60% of the state revenue: almost no tax is required of the inhabitants. Imports are mainly manufactured goods and consumer goods. But San Marino must also obtain gold in large quantities for its many goldsmiths and jewelers.
The average annual net income was 12,125 euros in 2005. 52% of the active population works in the service sector, 41% in the secondary sector and 7% in agriculture. Inflation remains moderate at 2.6%.