Where is AUSTRALIA located on the map?
Australia is a Commonwealth Oceania island country, located between the Indian Ocean and the South Pacific in south-east Asia.
Australia is the largest island in the world bordered to the north by the Timor Sea, the Arafura Sea and the Torres Strait, to the east by the Coral Sea and the Tasman Sea, to the south by the Bass Strait and the Indian Ocean and to the west by the Indian Ocean. Australia extends approximately 4,000 km from Cape Byrne (east end) to Western Australia (west boundary) and about 3,700 km from Cape York in the north to Tasmania in the south. Its area, Tasmania included, is 7 682 300 km².
Australian cities are very large and about 60 percent 100 Australians live in the metropolitan areas of the six state capitals and Canberra. Sydney has the largest suburb in the world. Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth and Adelaide are among the country’s major cities. Canberra, the national capital, is the only major city located inland.
Where is the country of AUSTRALIA situated?
The insularity of Australia makes it the most isolated of the inhabited continents. It is also the flatter and, with the exception of its territory in Antarctica, the driest. Its average altitude does not exceed 300 m. The interior of the country – the Outback – is composed of lowlands and low plateaux, generally higher in the Northeast. The eastern, southeastern and southwestern coastal plains are Australia’s most populous regions.
The eastern coastal plains are bordered by mountain ranges: the Australian cordillera, to the north, which follows the east coast from the Cape York peninsula, the Blue Mountains, in New South Wales, and the Australian Alps, in Victoria, which reaches the southeastern tip of the island. The highest point of the Australian Alps and Australia is Mount Kosciusko (2,228 m).
The west of the territory consists of an immense plateau – shield divided into several distinct blocks – with an average altitude of between 305 and 460 m; some parts have risen and form uplands, while others have subsided in plains and basins. The plains include the Great Sandy Desert, the Gibson Desert, the Great Victoria Desert and the Nullarbor Plain, respectively to the northwest, center and south of this region. Highlands include the Hamersley Mountains and Darling Downs in the west, and the MacDonnell and Musgrave Mountains in the center. Erosion and climate have created surprising isolated rock formations called mesas in many areas of the shield. Between the Western Australian Shield and the Great Dividing Range is the Great Basin Artesian region, which itself includes three major basins: Carpentaria, Eyre and Murray.
The Australian coastline is mostly regular, with few bays or capes. The greatest marine advances are the Gulf of Carpentaria to the north and the Australian Great Bay to the south. Sydney, Hobart, Port Lincoln and Albany are among the most beautiful natural ports in the country. The Tasmanian coast is, on the other hand, more broken. The World Heritage listed Great Barrier Reef extends nearly 2,010 km along the east coast of Queensland from Cape York in the north to Bundaberg in the south.
Two-thirds of Australia is desert or semi-desert, with climatic conditions severely limiting the number of permanent rivers. Murray, a permanent river, is fed by snowmelt at its source in the Kosciusko region, and by major tributaries such as Darling and Murrumbidgee; he throws himself into the sea on the south coast, east of Adelaide. The Murray-Darling-Murrumbidgee system, navigable for the most part during the wet season, is Australia’s main hydrographic system, covering more than 1.1 million km2.
The Snowy Mountains complex, located in the Australian Alps in New South Wales, built between 1949 and 1974, is one of the largest hydropower projects in the world; it provides additional water for irrigation and electricity to the entire south-east coast.