Where is ALGERIA located on the map?
Algeria is a Maghreb country. In Arabic the country is called Al Jazā’ir. Algeria is bordered on the north by the Mediterranean Sea, on the east by Tunisia and Libya, on the south-east by Niger, on the southwest by Mali and Mauritania, on the west by Morocco, and especially Western Sahara.
Algeria is the second largest country in Africa by surface area 2 381 741 km², of which four fifths are occupied by the Sahara. Administratively, Algeria comprises 48 wilayas, divided into 160 dairates (sub-prefectures) and 1 541 communes.
The capital, Algiers, the first seaport in the country is home to more than 3 million people. Oran, on the west coast, is a major commercial and port hub (over 600,000 inhabitants in 2008). To the east, Constantine is the capital of a livestock and wheat producing region (more than 800,000 inhabitants in 2008).
The country has two major geographical areas: the Atlas Mountains in the north and the Sahara in the south.
Between the massifs of the Tell Atlas, or Tell Algerian (Kabylie, Mascara, Ouarsenis, Saida, Tlemcen, etc.), are inserted narrow and discontinuous plains along a very steep coast that stretches on almost 1,000 km.
Where is the country of ALGERIA situated?
Inland, along the coastal wadis, lie numerous fertile valleys: the Chéliff valley, irrigated by the river of the same name, the longest in Algeria (725 km); the Mitidja, a subsidence plain separated from the sea by the hills of the Sahel of Algiers. To the east, the valleys form plains like the Soummam and the Annaba floodplain, of economic importance comparable to that of Mitidja. These regions include most of the arable land. There is no permanent wadi south of the Tell, where the semi-arid highlands (Setif, Constantine) are dotted with desert depressions and marshy salt lakes, the chotts (Chergui, Hodna).
The Saharan Atlas is made up of very old mountains, dating from the Eocene. Fragmented from west to east by erosion, these mountain ranges (Ksour Mountains, Jebel Amour, Ouled Naïl Mountains, Mzab, Jebel Aurès) are home to oases at the foot of their foothills. The Atlas dominates the vast expanse of the Algerian Sahara. Altitudes do not exceed 2,000 m, except in the border regions of Morocco (Jebel Aïssa, 2,236 m). To the east, the altitudes are higher, especially in the Aurès massif, whose peaks dominate the Hodna basin to the west.
The Algerian Sahara is opposed by a whole set of characters to Maghreb Algeria. From the point of view of the geological structure, it belongs to the old African base; this base of Precambrian rocks has been leveled over the millennia, and the sea covered a large part of the Sahara from the end of the Precambrian, the secondary and still tertiary. These marine transgressions partly explain the aspect of the Sahara; the crystalline basement only blows into mountain ranges such as the Hoggar or the Atakor, the sea having deposited on almost all the basement a heavy mantle of sediments: schists and primary sandstones, limestones, sandstones and clays in secondary, neogenic sediments in the north, torn from the Atlas in the tertiary.
In the north, the climate is typically Mediterranean. Summers are hot and dry, winters are mild and wet (400 mm to 1,000 mm of rain a year). Average temperatures (25 ° C in August and 12 ° C in January in Algiers) vary with altitude.
In summer, the sirocco, an extremely hot and dry wind, blows from the Sahara. On the high plateaus and in the Saharan Atlas, rainfall is low (200 mm to 400 mm per year). They are less than 130 mm per year in the Sahara. The thermal amplitude is very important (from 49 ° C the day to less than 10 ° C at night). The aridity of the climate is accentuated by winds of sand sometimes very violent (the wind simoun).